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## Dynamic target ionization using an ultrashort pulse of a laser field | SpringerLink

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He lives with his wife, natalie, and enjoys writing, biking, Condensed matter systems where interactions are strong are inherently difficult to analyze theoretically. As illustrated in figure 1, at the surface of the plasma the radiation pressure generates a positively charged layer of electron depletion of thickness d and a related pile-up of electrons in the skin layer of thickness ls , i.

Ions are accelerated in the skin layer leaving it at a time t; at which an ion bunch neutralized by accompanying electrons is formed. At this instant, the equilibrium between ponderomotive and electrostatic forces is lost and the excess electrons in the skin layer will quickly return back towards the charge depletion region. Eliminating d from these equations yields for the density compression ratio in the skin layer.

## Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites

For studies on orbital angular momentum absorption and IFE in laser-plasma interaction see, e. The IFE is due to absorption of EM angular momentum6, which in general is not proportional to energy. Figure 1. Cartoon showing the electron dynamics during the 'hole boring' stage. In order to compare the radiated energy with the laser pulse energy we take into account that the radiation is emitted as bursts corresponding to the periodic return of electrons towards the laser, i.

This order-of-magnitude estimate implies that for such intensities a significant part of the laser energy is lost as radiation, strongly affecting the interaction dynamics. A more precise estimate would require to account both for the energy depletion of the laser and for the trajectory modification of the electrons due to the RF force. A 3D approach is essential to model the phenomena of angular momentum absorption and magnetic field generation, thus we rely on massively parallel PIC simulations in which RF is implemented following the approach described in [7], based on the LL equation see [9] for a benchmark with other approaches.

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We remark that the inclusion of the radiation loss as a dissipative process via the RF force requires the following assumptions: i the dominant frequencies in the escaping radiation are much higher than the highest frequency that can be resolved on the numerical grid, ii the radiation at such frequencies is incoherent, iii the plasma is transparent to such frequencies. Case a is without RF, case b and c are with RF included and for opposite helicities. The laser pulse is incident along the x-axis from the left side and the thin black lines denote the boundaries of the target. The coordinates are normalized to A.

The plus and minus sign in the expression for a correspond to positive and negative helicity, respectively. The numerical box had a 30 x 25 x 25A3 size, with 40 grid cells per A and 64 particles per cell for each species. The comparison of figures 2 d and e shows that Bx has similar values and extension for a Gaussian pulse. The fraction hrad ofthe laser energy dissipated by RF reaches values up to hrad — 0. Figure 3. The dashed and dashed-dotted lines are fit to the data for hrad and Bmax, respectively. The density of angular momentum has been integrated over the radius and normalized to the total integrated angular momentum ofthe laser pulse.

Results with and without RF included are shown. The temporal growth of the axial field Bx induces an azimuthal electric field Ef, which in turn allows the absorbed angular momentum to be transferred from electrons to ions. The global evolution of the angular momenta of electrons and ions maybe described by the equations. The rotation of the electrons induces a current density jef — —ene WeR.

We thus obtain. Thus, from equation 5 we obtain. We thus estimate the final magnetic field as. The product neh is the surface density of the region where dissipation and angular momentum absorption occur. If hrad K ao then Bxm x a04, in good agreement with the observed scaling in figure 3 a. The discrepancywith the observed value of —28B0 maybe attributed to the nonlinear evolution and self-channeling of the laser pulse in the course of the hole boring process. In our simulations, RF is the dominant dissipative mechanism if not the only one at all allowing for the IFE, i.

This completely classical approach rises two questions: a would a quantum model of RF, which is in principle needed at extremely high intensities, significantly affect the radiative losses and b could QED effects including production of electron-positron pairs contribute considerably into absorption of laser radiation, competing with RF as the dominant source of energy dissipation?

Quantum effects on RF are important when the characteristic frequency of emitted photons is comparable to the electron energy, so that the photon recoil is significant. In our case the radiation spectrum peaks at wrad — a03 w while the electron energy —a0me c2, so that quantum effects are important at a0 — For relatively tightly focused pulses as we use in our simulations, intensities ofthe order of Wcm-2 i.

We are thus quite confident that RF remains the dominant dissipative mechanism even for the highest intensity applied in the simulations, and that the use of a quantum corrected RF model instead of the classical LL equation would not change the results qualitatively. On the other hand, quantitative modifications on the magnetic field may provide a signature of quantum RF.

In conclusion, we showed in 3D simulations that in the interaction of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses with thick, high density targets the strong radiation friction effects lead to angular momentum absorption and generation of multi-gigagauss magnetic fields via the inverse Faraday effect. Simple models for the efficiency of radiative losses, the transfer of angular momentum to ions and the value of the magnetic field are in fair agreement with the simulation results for what concerns both the scaling with intensity and order-of-magnitude estimates.

### Availability

With the advent of multi-petawatt laser systems, the investigated effect may provide a laboratory example of radiation-dominated, strongly magnetized plasmas and a macroscopic signature of RF, providing a test bed for related theories. Suggestions from D Bauer are gratefully acknowledged. E 91 Plasmas 16 SPIE Inverse Faraday effect driven by radiation friction Academic research paper on " Physical sciences ". CC BY.

## Interaction of Ultrashort Electromagnetic Pulses with Matter

Similar topics of scientific paper in Physical sciences , author of scholarly article — T V Liseykina, S V Popruzhenko, A Macchi Helium-3 and helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy. High density ultrashort relativistic positron beam generation by laser-plasma interaction.

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